Leader Effectivenessand Culture: The GLOBE Study© 2012Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved.Cultural Dimensions and Culture ClustersGLOBE’s first major achievement is a comprehensive description of how cultures are different or similar from one another. GLOBEestablished nine cultural dimensions that make it possible to capture the similarities and/or differences in norms, values, beliefs –and practices—among societies. They build on findingsby Hofstede (1980), Schwartz (1994), Smith (1995), Inglehart (1997), and others. They are:
Power DistanceThe degree to which members of a collective expect power to be distributed equally
Uncertainty AvoidanceThe extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on social norms, rules, and procedures to alleviate unpredictability of future events.
Humane OrientationThe degree to which a collective encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others.
Collectivism I(Institutional)The degree to which organizational and societalinstitutionalpractices encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action.
Collectivism II (In-Group)The degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty, andcohesiveness in their organizations or families.
AssertivenessThe degree to which individuals are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their relationships with others.
Gender EgalitarianismThe degree to which a collective minimizes gender inequality.
Future OrientationThe extent to which individuals engage in future-oriented behaviors such as delaying gratification, planning, and investing in the future.
Performance OrientationThe degree to which a collective encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence.
This allowed GLOBE(see Figure 1)to place60of the 62 societiesinto cultureclusters, similar to those by other previous studies (Ronen and Shenkar, 1985; Inglehart, 1997; Schwartz 1999). Cultural similarityis greatest among societies that constitute a cluster; cultural differenceincreasesthe farther clusters are apart. For example, the Nordiccluster is most dissimilar from theEasternEuropeancluster.