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Cara Clinton, cari Geithner e Kirk… Oltre duecentocinquanta economisti (139 americani, 118 in rappresentanza degli altri paesi) chiedono un ritorno dei controlli sui movimenti di capitale. Tra loro Stiglitz e altri big del pensiero economico. Le lobby partono al contrattacco, il dibattito supera i confini statunitensi

Il dibattito economico statunitense si è arricchito recentemente di un ulteriore capitolo. Gli accordi di libero scambio (FTAs) e gli accordi bilaterali di scambio (BITs) sono stati oggetti di critiche da parte di oltre 250 economisti americani e internazionali. Tra i primi firmatari della lettera inviata il 31 gennaio al Segretario di Stato Hillary Clinton, al ministro del Tesoro Timothy Geithner e all’ambasciatore Ron Kirk (delegato al Commercio estero), figurano Joseph Stiglitz e altre importanti figure di spicco del mondo accademico americano.

La lettera di Stiglitz e colleghi evidenzia l’importanza che le restrizioni dei movimenti di capitale a breve hanno nel contenere il rischio di bolle speculative. Un maggiore controllo consentirebbe, infatti, di limitare la volatilità macroeconomica internazionale evitando l’insorgere di ulteriori crisi finanziarie basate sulla speculazione internazionale. Su queste basi numerosi Paesi emergenti hanno adottato varie misure di controllo dei capitali, cercando di mettersi al riparo da afflussi e deflussi improvvisi in grado di minare i loro fragili sistemi finanziari.

La risposta delle lobby finanziarie, non si è fatta attendere. Nella lettera, firmata dalla camera di commercio americana e da quasi tutte le associazioni di industriali e manager americani e inviata a vari rappresentanti del governo il 7 febbraio, si esprime un giudizio fortemente positivo sugli accordi FTAs e BITs. Le eventuali restrizioni produrrebbero, secondo i firmatari della contro-lettera, effetti negativi sulle imprese e sui lavoratori americani e scatenerebbero una reazione a catena da parte di tutti i paesi del mondo con estensione di misure protezioniste persino sugli scambi commerciali. I rappresentati della finanza americana non esitano ad aggiungere, con spirito apparentemente disinteressato, che controlli generalizzati avrebbero effetti negativi soprattutto per i paesi che hanno più bisogno di capitali e investimenti: i paesi in via di sviluppo.

Le argomentazioni delle lobby sono state puntualmente ed efficacemente smontate nella contro-risposta degli economisti datata 9 febbraio. Le politiche di completa liberalizzazione dei capitali, sponsorizzate a oltranza dagli esponenti della finanza, hanno generato nel corso del tempo numerose crisi di grave entità. Se si pensa, per esempio, alle crisi finanziarie che hanno colpito vari paesi asiatici innestando instabilità sistemiche per colpa di liberalizzazioni selvagge dei flussi di capitali, oppure, ai recenti attacchi speculativi che stanno subendo alcuni paesi dell’area euro, allora si comprende agevolmente come le argomentazioni delle lobby non vertono su solide basi teoriche ed empiriche. Gli interessi di tali organizzazioni appaiono chiari: la liberalizzazione totale dei capitali agevolerebbe l’attività speculativa e i ricchi guadagni a essa legati e permetterebbe inoltre di ottenere elevate remunerazioni sfruttando i differenziali tra i tassi d’interesse.

Il sistema economico ha bisogno, evidentemente, di altro: una maggiore stabilità macroeconomica limiterebbe non solo l’insorgere di nuove crisi ma garantirebbe una crescita sostenibile e stabile, soprattutto per i paesi più poveri.

Parafrasando Keynes, riusciranno questa volta le idee ad abbattere il muro di gomma degli interessi pre-costituiti?

Il testo della lettera sui movimenti di capitale firmata da 257 economisti

Cari Segretario Clinton, ministro Geithner, e Ambasciatore Kirk:
Noi economisti firmatari vi scriviamo per informarvi di importanti sviluppi nella letteratura economica relativi alle regole di finanza prudenziale e per esprimere particolare preoccupazione riguardo a quanto i controlli di capitale siano limitati nel commercio estero e nei trattati di investimento.
Autorevoli ricerche pubblicate recentemente dal National Bureau of Economic Research, dal Fondo monetario internazionale e da altri istituti hanno mostrato che limiti agli afflussi di capitale di breve periodo nei paesi in via di sviluppo possono contrastare il dilagare di pericolose bolle speculative e apprezzamenti di valuta e possono concedere ai Paesi una maggiore autonomia nell’attuazione della politica monetaria.
Data la gravità della crisi finanziaria e le sue conseguenze, le nazioni avranno bisogno di ogni possibile strumento a loro disposizione per prevenire e frenare le crisi finanziarie. Anche se le restrizioni sui movimenti di capitale non sono la soluzione a tutti i problemi, queste nuove ricerche mostrano un consenso crescente intorno all’idea che le tecniche di gestione dei flussi di capitali dovrebbero essere incluse tra le “misure di stabilità macro-prudenziale” (carefully designed macro-prudential measures), promosse dai leader del G-20 al summit di Seul. In questi ultimi mesi, infatti, un certo numero di Paesi, dalla Thailandia al Brasile, ha risposto all’aumentare dei movimenti di capitale adottando varie forme di regolazione dei flussi.
Vi scriviamo, inoltre, per esprimere la nostra preoccupazione sul fatto che molti accordi commerciali e trattati bilaterali d’investimento degli Usa contengono clausole che limitano fortemente la capacità dei nostri partner commerciali di adottare misure di controllo dei capitali. Le disposizioni sui “trasferimenti di capitale” (Capital transfers) di tali accordi richiedono ai governi di consentire che tutti i trasferimenti relativi a investimenti garantiti possano muoversi “liberi e senza dilazioni all’interno e all’esterno del proprio territorio”.
Nell’ambito di tali accordi, gli investitori privati stranieri hanno il potere reale di fare causa ai governi nei tribunali internazionali per presunte violazioni di queste clausole. Alcuni recenti accordi commerciali degli Stati Uniti pongono dei limiti sulla quantità di risarcimenti che gli investitori esteri possono ricevere come compenso per talune misure di controllo dei capitali e richiedono un prolungato “periodo di raffreddamento” prima che gli investitori possano presentare i propri reclami. Queste riforme minori, tuttavia, non sono sufficienti a fare in modo che i governi abbiano la facoltà di utilizzare tali legittimi strumenti di policy. Gli accordi commerciali e d’investimento di altri grandi Paesi esportatori di capitale permettono una maggiore flessibilità.
Noi suggeriamo che i futuri FTAs (accordi di libero scambio) e BITs (accordi bilaterali di scambio) degli Stati uniti permettano ai governi di implementare controlli di capitale senza essere soggetti ai ricorsi degli investitori, come parte di un menu più ampio di opzioni di policy per prevenire e mitigare le crisi finanziarie.

Cordiali saluti,

Primi firmatari

1. Ricardo Hausmann, Director, Harvard University Center for International Development
2. Dani Rodrik, Rafiq Hariri Professor of International Political Economy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
3. Joseph Stiglitz, University Professor, Columbia University, Nobel laureate
4. Arvind Subramanian, Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics, and Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development
5. Nancy Birdsall, President, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC
6. Olivier Jeanne, Professor of Economics, Johns Hopkins University, and Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics
7. Pranab Bardhan, Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley
8. Lance Taylor, Department of Economics, New School for Social Research
9. Jose Antonio Ocampo, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
10. Stephany Griffith-Jones, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University
11. Ethan Kaplan, IIES, Stockholm University and Columbia University
12. Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, President, The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
13. Ilene Grabel, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver
14. Alice Amsden, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT
15. Gerald Epstein, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst
16. Kevin P. Gallagher, Department of International Relations, Boston University
17. Sarah Anderson, Global Economy Project Director, Institute for Policy Studies
18. Arindrajit Dube, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst
19. William Miles, Department of Economics, Wichita State University
20. Adam Hersh, Center for American Progress
21. James K. Galbraith, Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. Chair in Government/Business Relations and Professor of Government, University of Texas at Austin
22. Paul Blustein, Nonresident Fellow, the Brookings Institution, and Senior Visiting Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation
23. Anton Korinek, Department of Economics, University of Maryland

altri firmatari degli Stati uniti
24. Rania Antonopoulos, Director, Gender Equality and the Economy Program, Levy Economics Institute
25. Eileen Appelbaum, Center for Economic and Policy Research
26. Leslie Elliott Armijo, Visiting Scholar, Mark O. Hatfield School of Government, Portland State University
27. Ron Baiman, Center for Tax and Budget Accountability
28. Dean Baker, Co-director, Center for Economic and Policy Research
29. Radhika Balakrishnan, Executive Director, Center for Women’s Global Leadership and Professor at Women’s and Gender Studies Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
30. Nesecan Balkan, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics Hamilton College
31. Erol Balkan, Department of Economics, Hamilton College
32. Lourdes Beneria, Professor, Cornell University
33. Roger R. Betancourt, Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Maryland
34. Ravi Bhandari, Senior Fulbright Scholar, Department of Economics, Saint Mary’s College of California
35. Cyrus Bina, Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota
36. William K. Black, University of Missouri-Kansas City
37. Ron Blackwell, Chief Economist, AFL-CIO
38. Robert A. Blecker, Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, American University
39. Howard Botwinick, Associate Professor of Economics, SUNY Cortland
40. James K. Boyce, Director Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts
41. Aldo Caliari, Director, Rethinking Bretton Woods Project, Center of Concern
42. John Cavanagh, Director, Institute for Policy Studies
43. Aydin Cecen, Professor of Economics and Director, Center for International Trade & Economic Research, Central Michigan University
44. Paul P. Christensen, Associate Professor of Economics, Hofstra University
45. Jens Christiansen, Professor of Economics, Mount Holyoke College
46. Steve Cohn, Professor of Economics, Knox College
47. Jane D’Arista, Research Associate, Political Economy Research Institute
48. Paul Davidson, Editor, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
49. George DeMartino, Professor and Co-Diretor Program in GFTEI, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver
50. James M. DeVault, Associate Professor of Economics, Lafayette College
51. Robert Devlin, Director, Organization of American States (OAS)
52. Rick Doner, Professor, Department of Political Science, Emory University
53. Marie Christine Duggan, Associate Professor of Economics, Keene State College
54. Amitava Krishna Dutt, Professor of Economics and Political Science, University of Notre Dame
55. Todd Easton, Associate Professor, Pamplin School of Business, University of Portland
56. Catherine S. Elliott, Professor of Economics, New College of Florida
57. Kimberly Elliott, Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development
58. Maria S. Floro, Economics Department, American University
59. Mwangi wa Githinji, Economics Department, University of Massachusetts-Amherst
60. David Gold, Associate Professor, International Affairs Program, The New School
61. Neva R. Goodwin, Co-director, Global Development And Environment Institute, Tufts University
62. John M. Gowdy, Rittenhouse Professor of Humanities and Social Science, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
63. Howard Handelman, Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
64. Heidi Hartmann, President, Institute for Women’s Policy Research
65. Soren Hauge, Associate Professor, Economics Department, Ripon College
66. Ann Helwege, Department of International Relations, Boston University
67. Barry Herman, Graduate Program in International Affairs, The New School
68. Ellen Houston, Department of International Studies and Economics, Marymount Manhattan College
69. Amy Ickowitz, Assistant Professor, Clark University
70. Janis K. Kapler, Associate Professor and Chair, Economics Department, University of Massachusetts
71. Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Copeland Fellow, Amherst College
72. Haider A. Khan, Professor of Economics, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver
73. Tarron Khemraj, Assistant Professor of Economics, New College of Florida
74. Robin A. King, Non-Resident Associate, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University
75. Timothy Koechlin, Director, International Studies Program, Vassar College
76. Jan Kregel, Senior Scholar and Program Director, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
77. William Van Lear, Professor of Economics, Belmont Abbey College
78. Fernando Leiva, Associate Professor, Department of Latin American, Caribbean and US Latino Studies, University at Albany (SUNY)
79. Charles Levenstein, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts
80. Catherine Lynde, University of Massachusetts
81. Arthur MacEwan, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, Senior Fellow, Center for Social Policy, University of Massachusetts
82. Jeff Madrick, Editor, Challenge Magazine
83. Markos J. Mamalakis, Professor of Economics Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
84. David R. Mares, Institute of the Americas Chair for Inter-American Affairs and Director, Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies, University of California
85. Thomas Masterson, Research Scholar, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
86. Julie Matthaei, Professor of Economics, Wellesley College
87. Kathleen McAfee, Associate Professor, Global Political Economy, Department of International Relations, San Francisco State University
88. Elaine McCrate, Economics and Women’s Studies, University of Vermont
89. Martin Melkonian, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Hofstra University
90. Marcelo Milan, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside
91. John A. Miller, Professor of Economics, Wheaton College
92. Daniel R. Miller, Department of History, Calvin College
93. Philip Moss, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts
94. Tracy Mott, Associate Professor and Department Chair, Department of Economics, University of Denver
95. Julie A. Nelson, Professor, Department of Economics University of Massachusetts
96. Richard B. Norgaard, Energy and Resources Group, University of California
97. Thomas Palley, Associate, Economic Growth Program, New America Foundation
98. Richard Parker, John F Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
99. Eva Paus, Professor, Department of Economics, Mt. Holyoke College
100. Karl Petrick, Assistant Professor of Economics, Western New England College
101. Robert Pollin, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts
102. Thomas M. Power, Professor, Economics Department, University of Montana
103. Martin Rapetti, University of Massachusetts
104. Miriam Rehm, New School
105. Michael Reich, Professor of Economics, University of California
106. Joseph Ricciardi, Associate Professor of Economics, Babson College
107. Charles P. Rock, Professor of Economics, Rollins College
108. Jaime Ros, Professor of Economics, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame
109. Helen Scharber, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts
110. Ted P. Schmidt, Associate Professor of Economics and Finance, SUNY Buffalo State
111. John Schmitt, Senior Economist, Center for Economic and Policy Research
112. Ben Schneider, Professor, Department of Political Science, MIT
113. Juliet Schor, Department of Sociology, Boston College
114. Stephanie Seguino, Professor of Economics, University of Vermont
115. Eric Selbin, Professor of Political Science and University Scholar, Southwestern University
116. Nina Shapiro, Professor of Economics, Saint Peter’s College
117. John Sheahan, Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Williams College
118. Barry Shelley, Professor, Graduate Programs in Sustainable International Development, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University
119. Maria Luiza Falcão Silva, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh; MSc University of Wisconsin
120. Peter Skott, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts
121. Bryan Snyder, Department of Economics, Bentley University
122. Rose J. Spalding, Professor, Political Science, DePaul University
123. James Ronald Stanfield, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Colorado State University
124. Howard Stein, Adjunct Professor, Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan
125. Strom Thacker, Associate Dean of the Faculty, College of Arts and Sciences, Boston University
126. Chris Tilly, Professor of Urban Planning and Director, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, UCLA
127. Steven Topik, Department of History, University of California
128. Mayo C. Toruño, Professor and Chair of Economics Department, California State University
129. Eric Verhoogen, Associate Professor, Department of Economics and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
130. Matías Vernengo, Associate Professor, University of Utah
131. Tonia Warnecke, Professor, Department of Economics, Rollins College
132. Mark Weisbrot, Co-Director, Center for Economic and Policy Research
133. Thomas E. Weisskopf, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Michigan
134. Jonathan B. Wight, Professor of Economics and International Studies, Robins School of Business, University of Richmond
135. Timothy A. Wise, Director of Research and Policy Program, Global Development and Environment Institute (GDAE), Tufts University
136. Marty Wolfson, University of Notre Dame
137. Mickey Wu, Professor, Department of Economics, Coe College
138. David Zalewski, Professor of Finance, Providence College
139. Silverio Zebral, Chief-Economist, Organization of American States (OAS)

altri paesi
140. Absar Alam, Economist, RITES ltd. India, India
141. Derbal Abdelkader, Professor in Economics, Oran University, Algeria
142. Francisco Aguayo, Program Researcher, El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico
143. Gieeta Ahuja, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, PGDAV(E) College, University of Delhi, India
144. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Chair of the Department of International Development Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Canada
145. Fayq Al Akayleh, Quantitative Business Department Head, Al Yamamah University, Saudi Arabia
146. Philip Arestis, Director of Research, Cambridge Centre for Economic & Public Policy (CCEPP) and Senior Research Fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK
147. Mohamed Aslam, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Economics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
148. Emilios Avgouleas, Professor of International Financial Markets & Financial Law and Director of the LLM Programme, The School of Law, The University of Manchester, UK
149. Arindam Banerjee, Consultant, Research and Information System in Developing Countries, New Delhi, India
150. Juan José Barrios, Professor, Department of Economics, Universidad ORT, Uruguay
151. Edsel L. Beja Jr., Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
152. Janine Berg, Senior Economist, International Labour Office
153. Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, Professor of International Economics and Macro Economics, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS), Netherlands
154. Sheila Bhalla, Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, India
155. Mustapha Ibn Boamah, Assistant Professor of Economics, Department of Social Science, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada
156. Patrick Bond, Professor of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
157. Pablo Gabriel Bortz, Ph.D. candidate, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
158. Sergio Cesaratto, Professor of Economics, Department of Political Economy, University of Siena, Italy
159. Ha-Joon Chang, Department of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
160. Kyung-Sup Chang, Professor of Sociology, Seoul National University, South Korea
161. Ping Chen, Professor, National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing, and Senior Fellow at the Center for New Political Economy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
162. Suthiphand Chirathivat, Chairman, Chula Global Network, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
163. John Christensen, Director and Economic Adviser, Tax Justice Network International Secretariat, London, UK
164. Alan Cibils, Chair, Political Economy Department, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina
165. Andrew Cornford, Counsellor, Observatoire de la Finance, Geneva, Switzerland
166. Christopher Cramer, Professor of the Political Economy of Development, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London, UK
167. Ludo Cuyvers, Full Professor, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Netherlands
168. James M. Cypher, Doctoral Program in Development Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Mexico
169. Anthony P. D’Costa, Professor of Indian Studies and Research Director, Asia Research Centre, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
170. Xiao-yuan Dong, Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg MB, Canada
171. Javier M. Iguíñiz Echeverría, Profesor Principal Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú
172. Chris Edwards, Senior Fellow, University of East Anglia, UK
173. Ibrahim El-Issawy, Professor of Economics, Institute of National Planning, Egypt
174. Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, Professor, Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Chile, Chile
175. Andrew M. Fischer, Senior Lecturer in Population and Social Policy, Convenor of the Poverty Studies MA specialization, Institute of Social Studies (ISS), part of Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Hague
176. Smitha Francis, Principal Economist, Economic Research Foundation (ERF), New Delhi, India
177. Roberto Frenkel, Professor and Principal Research Associate, University of Buenos Aires and CEDES, Argentina
178. Clara García, Associate Professor of Applied Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
179. Marina Della Giusta, Department of Economics, University of Reading, Reading, UK
180. Jonathan Glennie, Research Fellow, Centre for Aid and Public Expenditure (CAPE), Overseas Development Institute, London, UK
181. Ummuhan Gokovali, Associate Professor, Economics Department, Mugla University, Turkey
182. Margarita F. Gomez, Coordinator, Bantay Kita Project, Action for Economic Reforms (Secretariat), Philippines
183. Ricardo Grinspun, Department of Economics, York University, Canada
184. Arnold Heertje, Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
185. Gerry Helleiner, University of Toronto, Canada
186. Carlos Heredia, Professor and Director of International Studies, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas A.C., Mexico
187. Rolph van der Hoeven, Professor of Employment and Development Economics, Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Erasmus University, Netherlands
188. S A Hamed Hosseini, Assistant Professor, expert in Global Studies and Sociology, University of Newcastle, Australia
189. Gustavo Indart, Department of Economics, University of Toronto
190. George Irvin, Professorial Research Fellow in Economics of Development Studies, University of London, SOAS, UK
191. P.N. (Raja) Junankar, Emeritus Professor, University of Western Sydney, Australia
192. Rainer Kattel, Professor of Innovation Policy and Technology Governance, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
193. Tadeusz Kowalik, Professor of Economics and Humanities, Institute of Economics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
194. Sanat Kumar, Relationship Manager (Medium Enterprises), State Bank Of India, India
195. Kazimierz Laski, Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Linz, Austria
196. Hwok-Aun Lee, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Malaysia
197. Louis Lefeber, Emeritus Professor of Economics and Graduate Faculty for Social and Political Thought, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
198. Noemi Levy-Olrik, Economic Faculty, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico
199. Joseph Anthony Lim, Professor Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines
200. Julio G Lopez, Full professor of economics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico
201. Rasigan Maharajh, Chief Director, Institute for Economic Research on Innovation, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
202. Pietro P. Masina, Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Naples “L’Orientale”, Italy
203. Terrence McDonough, Professor of Economics, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland
204. Oudebji Mohamed, Professor of International Economic Law of Development, Faculty of Law in University of Marrakech, Morocco
205. Mritiunjoy Mohanty, Professor, Economics Group, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, India
206. Sudipto Mundle, Emeritus Professor, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi, India
207. Richard Murphy, Director, Tax Research LLP, UK
208. Sreeram Mushty, Freelance Economist, India
209. Nitya Nanda, Fellow, Centre for Global Agreements, Legislation and Trade (GALT), Resources, Regulation and Global Security Division, Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India Habitat Centre, India
210. André Nassif, Professor, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal Fluminense Brazil and The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), Brazil
211. Machiko Nissanke, Professor of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK
212. Lisa L. North, Professor Emeritus, York University, Toronto, Canada
213. Susumu Ono, Professor Emeritus, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan
214. José F. Pérez Oya, Retired Secretariat UN member, B.A.- M.A- Oxon, Spain
215. Ignacio Perrotini, Professor, Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico
216. Cosimo Perrotta, Università del Salento, Italy
217. Alberto Arroyo Picard, Professor of International Economics, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Mexico
218. Jan Priewe, University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany
219. Alicia Puyana, D. Phil. Oxon Professor at Facultad Lainoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, FLACSO-Mexico, Mexico
220. Kunibert Raffer, Department of Economics, University of Vienna
221. Arup Rahee, Executive Director, Lokoj Institute, Bangladesh
222. Indira Rajaraman, Honorary Visiting Professor, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India
223. Angelo Reati, Former official of the European Commission,
224. Y Venugopal Reddy, Emeritus Professor, University of Hyderabad, Former Governor – Reserve Bank of India, India
225. Massimo Ricottilli, Full Professor, Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy
226. Simon Roberts, Chief Economist, Competition Commission South Africa and visiting scholar, University of Cambridge, UK
227. Sergio Rossi, Chair of Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics, Department of Economics, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
228. Carlos A. Rozo, Professor of International Economics, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Departamento de Producción Económica, Mexico
229. Gilson Schwartz, Professor, University of São Paulo, Brazil
230. Paul Segal, Lecturer in Economics, University of Sussex, UK
231. Gita Sen, Professor, Centre for Public Policy, Indian Institute of Management, India
232. Dung Pam Sha, Associate Professor, Center for Political Economy and Development Studies, University of Jos, Nigeria
233. Mehdi Shafaeddin, Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland
234. Prem Sikka, Professor of Accounting, Centre for Global Accountability, Essex Business School, University of Essex, UK
235. Kavaljit Singh, Public Interest Research Centre, India
236. Kannan Srinivasan, Visiting Fellow, Monash Asia Institute Melbourne Victoria, Australia
237. Irene van Staveren, Professor of Pluralist Development Economics, International institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS), Netherlands
238. Frances Stewart, Professor Emeritus of Development Economics, University of Oxford, UK
239. Eduardo Strachman, Coordinator of Post Graduate Studies in Economics, São Paulo State University, (Unesp), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil
240. Jolanta Supinska, Professor of Social Policy, Institute of Social Policy, Warsaw University, Poland
241. Insan Tunali, Associate Professor of Economics and Associate Dean, College of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey
242. Oscar Ugarteche, Professor of International Finance, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas UNAM, Mexico
243. Bal Krishna Upadhyay, Professor, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
244. Marc Vandenberghe, Belgian Risk Management Association, Belgium
245. Alejandro Vanoli, Professor of International Economy, School of Economics, University of Buenos Aires, Chairman of Securities and Exchange Commission of Argentina, Argentina
246. Roberto Veneziani, Queen Mary University of London, UK
247. Victor S Venida, Professor, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
248. Alessandro Vercelli, Full professor of Economics, University of Siena, Italy
249. Robert H. Wade, Professor of Political Economy and Development, London School of Economics, UK
250. Erin Weir, Senior Economist, International Trade Union Confederation, Belgium
251. Philip B. Whyman, Professor of Economics, University of Central Lancashire, UK
252. Raymond E. Wiest, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Manitoba, Canada
253. Yu Yongding, Academician, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences President China Society of World Economics, China
254. Amar Yumnam, Dean/Director/Professor, School of Social Sciences, Manipur University/Center for Manipur Studies, Manipur University/Professor at Department of Economics, Manipur University, India
255. Stefano Zamagni, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Bologna, Italy
256. Vera Negri Zamagni, Professor of Economic History, University of Bologna, Italy
Álvaro S. Zerda, Profesor Asociado, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

In allegato, il pdf con la lettera degli economisti sui controlli dei movimenti di capitale, in inglese

 

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